During this specialty, students will deal with the treatment of several types of addiction. The types of addiction include psychological, social work, drug/alcohol, etc. Addiction Medicine includes different therapies for detoxification, rehabilitation, reducing self-harm, reducing withdrawal symptoms, and relapse therapies. Students will be required to interact with new patients and participate in group therapy sessions.
The anesthesiology clinical placement is intended to allow students to observe and participate in the administration of inpatient and outpatient operative anesthesia, obstetrical anesthesia, and the diagnosis and management of chronic pain syndromes. Students, under the close supervision of the attending physician, will participate in the administration of inhalation and conduction anesthesia and the use of diagnostic and therapeutic regional anesthetic techniques. The students gain knowledge in the preoperative evaluation and the physiological and pharmacological management of the patient undergoing surgery. The students will pay close attention to airway management, monitoring techniques, interpretation of laboratory values obtained intraoperatively and the pharmacology of the anesthetic agents and other drugs used in patient management.
The objective of the cardiology clinical placement is to improve the student’s basic understandings of the cardiovascular system and diseases. Students will learn how to appropriately consult patients with cardiovascular health problems and perform a complete history and physical. Students are involved in following their cases through cardiac investigations including a stress test, echocardiogram, and cardiology catheterization. Students will learn to have an accurate understanding of electrocardiograms and be able to interpret them appropriately. Students will also be exposed to cases involving murmurs where they should be able to appreciate each heart sound and determine the cause of the murmur. Students will gain the ability to evaluate venous and arterial pulses and diseases that impact the cardiovascular system. Through the placement, students will be able to determine the different types of arrhythmias and appropriate treatment for each.
During the cardiovascular surgery placement, students will function as an integral member of the team in the work-up and management of patients with cardiac, vascular and thoracic diseases. Student’s will be given the opportunity to go to the cardiac cath lab, the respiratory lab, the vascular radiology lab, the intensive care unit as well as to the operating room where they will be part of the surgical team. Students will be closely supervised by a member of the cardiac surgery department including the attending physician as well as the entire surgical team. The students will develop an in-depth understating for the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology and the impact disease has on the normal cardiovascular system. They will also develop an increasing awareness of the treatment and outcome of the most frequent cardiac diseases.
During the Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, students will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Under the supervision of a preceptor, students will evaluate and assess new patients. Students will learn about factors that influence these disorders to occur and how to treat and respond to them.
During the colorectal surgery, clinical placement importance is brought upon the understanding of the anatomy of the colon and rectum as well as the pathophysiology of the colon and rectal diseases. Students should be able to identify different areas of the colon, important anatomical landmarks as well as any visible abnormalities during the surgeries. Students will have the opportunity to be involved with patient consultations during which time a post-operative as well as pre-operative patient note needs to be taken. Students should learn how to properly perform a rectal examination using the appropriate methods. Ability to differentiate between an abnormal and normal rectum by rectal examination should be demonstrated as well as the ability to diagnose the cause of the abnormality.
During the dermatology clinical experience, students will be exposed to the many aspects of dermatologic diagnosis and treatments. The students will become familiar with conventional therapy and diagnostic techniques including KOH exam, gram stain, cosmetic surgery and dermatologic laser. Students will be able to conduct consultations in an inpatient setting. At the end of the dermatology clinical experience, students will be able to properly perform a history and physical examination of patients with skin diseases, recognize and treat common skin conditions. Students will be exposed to patients of a variety of ages with various skin conditions including moderate to severe acne, SLE, and rosacea.
- During the dermatology clinical placement, the student will be exposed to the many aspects of dermatologic diagnosis and treatments. The students will become familiar with conventional therapy and diagnostic techniques including KOH exam, gram stain, cosmetic surgery and dermatologic laser. Students will be able to conduct consultations in an in-patient setting.
- At the end of the general dermatology placement, students will be able to properly perform a history and physical examination of patients with skin diseases, recognize and treat common skin conditions. Students will be exposed to patients of a variety of ages with various skin conditions including moderate to severe acne, SLE, and rosacea.
The emergency medicine clinical experience allows students to practice various aspects of medical specialties including primary care services, acute care, critical care, coordinating inpatients as well as outpatients. Students will partake in taking a detailed history and physical examinations, appropriate assessment options, and tests to order as well as a differential diagnosis list. Students will be exposed to pediatric trauma as well as adult trauma. Students are able to apply their knowledge learned in core specialties in a high volume and fast paced patient setting.
Students will learn about dealing with the endocrine system and hormone secretions. Students will become knowledgeable about the more common endocrine disorders including diabetes, thyroid disorders, hyperparathyroidism, and osteoporosis. Students will be assigned to see patients while being supervised. Students will be required to keep notes of problems encountered during their observations.
An ENT clinical experience is more complex as it involves the ear, nose, and throat with which there is a broad range of diseases. Students will be in a clinical setting where they will learn how to assess each patient’s chief complaint, be able to take a full history and rule out the specific cause. Students will gain knowledge upon performing accurate head and neck exams, management of otolaryngologic emergencies including upper airway obstruction. Students will also be exposed to cases involving facial fractures and rhinology.
The family medicine clinical experience occurs an in and out-patient clinical setting. During this time, students are exposed to patients with many common and occasional health concerns. Students will be able to take a complete patient history as well as compile an accurately written SOAP note. Students will also be able to understand how to correctly write a prescription using the appropriate medical abbreviations.
Throughout the experience, students will gain knowledge on how to treat and/or prevent commonly occurring health problems including hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, smoking etc. It is important to obtain sufficient patient-physician interaction skills. If the attending physician chooses, each case should be professionally presented to the physician. By the end of the experience, students should be familiar with how to formulate a differential diagnosis, the most commonly used medications as well as most common tests/labs to be ordered for the patient’s condition (next step in management).
During this GIT clinical experience, students will be exposed to endoscopic procedures conducted by gastroenterologists allowing them to grasp concepts regarding the most commonly seen gastrointestinal diseases. Throughout the experience, students will develop clinical skills to assess patients with GI disorders. Students will gain knowledge and demonstrate appropriate choice of labs to order, tests to be conducted and procedures needed to diagnose GI disorders. Students will also be able to appropriately consult patients prior to a procedure as well as after regarding any diet restrictions and discharge instructions.
During the geriatrics clinical experience, students will focus on the healthcare of elderly people. Geriatrics promotes health in elderly patients by treating diseases and preventing diseases and disabilities. Student will get an experience in an acute care, post-acute, nursing homes, palliative care as well as hospice care setting. Students acquire skills needed to care for the elderly and long-term complex diseases. This allows students the opportunity to build upon their medical knowledge to identify the etiology and management of common geriatric diseases associated with aging including Parkinson’s, dementia, depression, malnutrition, chronic pain, osteoporosis, etc. Students will write up and present clinical cases and review patient outcomes and identify improvements.
During the hematology clinical experience, students will have the opportunity to evaluate in-patients on the wards as well as out-patients in the clinics with a variety of hematologic problems. These problems include the evaluation and treatment of patients with anemia, thrombocytopenia, enlarged lymph nodes or spleen, bleeding and clotting disorders, and other abnormalities of the blood. Hematologists also manage chemotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. They prescribe blood product administration and removal of excess blood components as needed for a variety of blood disorders. Students are expected to be an active participant in patient evaluations and consultations, familiarize themselves with associated laboratory abnormalities and assist in patient follow up.
During the immunology/allergy clinical experience, students will focus on allergy and other immune system disorders and learn about diagnosing allergies ranging from food, drugs, or seasonal allergies. Students will also learn about treating allergies and immune system disorders such as asthma and arthritis.
The infectious disease clinical experience focuses on the diagnosis, control, and treatment of infections. Infectious Disease specialists may, in most cases, serve as consultants to other physicians handling complex infections and commonly with patients dealing with HIV/AIDS. Students will be assigned case studies and will interact with patients in a hospital and clinic setting.
The clinical experience in internal medicine teaches the students a logical approach to patients and their problems, leading from a presenting or chief complaint, through a comprehensive history and physical examination, to the formulation of a differential diagnosis. The internal medicine clinical experience is designed to expose students to a wide variety of medical problems. Students are expected to elicit and assess information obtained from the patient; observe the appropriate manner in which a competent physical examination is conducted; to draw up a problem; to construct a differential diagnosis list and discuss the order of probability; and to discuss with the attending the appropriate plan of action in terms of diagnostic therapies and patient education.
During the neonatology clinical experience, students will gain an understanding of the most common diseases of newborn infants and the best possible treatments available. Students, under the supervision of the attending neonatologist, are to be involved in the care of premature low birth weight infants with their multiple complicating disease processes. Full-term infants are also referred for care with complications such as perinatal asphyxia, jaundice, neonatal sepsis, congenital heart disease or major congenital malformations requiring surgical repair. Students will also attend daily patient care rounds to observe the many critical aspects involved in the comprehensive neonatal intensive care. Throughout the placement, students should grasp a thorough understanding of normal and abnormal fetal development as well as the transitions from intrauterine to extrauterine environment.
During the nephrology clinical experience, students will come across a variety of cases during their nephrology placement including patients with acid-base disorders, electrolyte, and metabolic disorders as well as chronic and acute renal diseases. Students will understand the importance and ability to communicate effectively with patients regarding their disorders. Students will also be able to draw out a differential diagnosis, determine the best next step in management and discuss each case with their attending physician. Students will also be asked to compose presentations on some of the above-mentioned cases as well as any seen during the placement.
The neurology clinical placement is designed to provide students with a thorough insight regarding the most commonly seen neurological problems. The emphasis of this clinical experience is on neurological localization, diagnosis, and management. Students are expected to conduct a complete a thorough neurological examination on each patient seen both in an inpatient setting as well as outpatient. This will allow students to expand their knowledge regarding tests to order, imaging studies as well as newer treatments available. Students are expected to present each case to the attending physician in detail along with any physical examination findings. By the end of the clinical experience, students should have built upon their basic science knowledge and physical examination skills.
The goals of the clinical experience in obstetrics & gynecology are to provide the student with clinical experience in:
- The management of normal and pathological changes that occur during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and the puerperium
- The diagnosis and management of gynecology diseases
- The principles and practice of family planning
- Public health aspects related to sexually transmitted disease, cancer detection, and education in human sexuality.
- Students should be able to take a thorough gynecological history and physical.
The ophthalmology clinical experience is a combined surgery/clinic placement. Emphasis is given to the clinical aspect of this placement. Students are expected to have a strong and thorough knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the eye as well as eye movements. Students will grasp the concept of taking a good history, measuring the visual acuity, proficient use of the slit lamp and ophthalmoscope as well as physical examination of the eye.
During the pain management clinical experience, students will learn about evaluating, diagnosing, and treating all diverse types of pain. Pain includes a large spectrum of disorders such as; acute pain, chronic pain, cancer pain and sometimes a combination of some or all of these. Students will work with pain specialists and nurses and will attend programs and groups sessions as well.
During the palliative care clinical experience, students will focus on treating uncomfortable systems such as pain, fatigue, and nausea. Treatments may include prescription medicine, various types of therapy, or other procedures or treatments. Typically, Palliative care is provided in hospice settings for patients who may have been diagnosed as incurable. Students will spend time in a variety of settings while interacting with palliative patients.
During the pathology, students will discover all areas of laboratory investigation in health and disease. This specialty focuses on the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of disease. A pathologist may be used as consultants for clinical physicians seeking advice for their patients. Students will be analyzing and evaluating specimens with a consultant’s guidance.
During the pediatrics clinical experience, students will emphasize on history taking and physical examination of newborns, infants, children, and adolescents. Normal and abnormal growth and development are stressed. Students will be involved in the care of inpatients from admission to discharge and, if possible, in the follow-up clinics. The emergency department, well-baby clinic, outpatient departments, and intensive care units provide additional experience
The objectives of the clinical experience in pediatrics are to teach students to:
- Learn how to elicit a thorough history from the patient and/or parent
- Become familiar with each age-appropriate examination and development assessment
- Formulate a problem list, including psycho-social, behavioral and medical
- Communicate effectively with patients and parents
- Demonstrate an understanding of common pediatric problems.
During the clinical experience in physical medicine & rehabilitation, students will learn how a rehabilitation physician must obtain expertise in muscle, nerve, bone and brain injuries or illnesses. The idea of a rehabilitation is to avoid surgery or further surgery. Students will also be introduced to rehabilitation from neurological conditions such as stroke and brain injuries. Students will be assigned a number of patients for evaluation throughout their clinical experience.
During the clinical experience in plastic surgery, students will be introduced to the various procedures which typically involve reconstruction, restoring or modifying the human body. Reconstructive surgery is to restore function to the body where there may have been damage such as a burn or type of trauma. Cosmetic surgery is to improve the appearance of the body and is more of a superficial surgery and is not a necessity but is desired. Students will assist surgeons with procedures.
The clinical experience in psychiatry teaches the students biological, psychosocial, and social-cultural psychiatric disorders. Students will learn and be able to complete a psychiatric diagnostic work-up. Students will also learn the psychiatric concepts, attitudes, and skills that will be useful to all physician-patient relationships. Students should be respectful and sympathetic to any personal issues a patient may present with as well as maintaining patient-physician confidentiality. Experiencing direct and indirect patient contact, the student will be able to understand how to elicit, organize, and perform a full diagnostic psychiatric evaluation inclusive of a comprehensive mental status exam. Students will acquire knowledge of common Psychiatric disorders and their treatments to able to formulate a differential diagnosis, a diagnostic workup with a plan of management.
- The radiology clinical placement is structured to provide a detailed overview of diagnostic imaging, invasive radiology, and fundamentals of radiology. Students will develop an understanding of the types of studies that are available. They will also gain an understanding of clinical indications for obtaining studies, the risks/benefits of radiological procedures and the technical aspect of how examinations are performed.
- Prior to completion of the rotation, students will gain an insight into the diagnostic limitations of imaging studies. They will learn to know the difference between each of the imaging specialties and the operation of these procedures.
During the respirology clinical experience, students will gain experience in the assessment and management of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Students are required to have an understanding of the basic and more complex respiratory diseases. Students will be exposed to cases including acute bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory distress syndrome. Students will also enhance their skills in pulmonary function tests and chest radiograph interpretation.
The rheumatology clinical experience allows students to be exposed to a wide range of rheumatic disorders to improve their skills in history taking, musculoskeletal examination, and differential diagnosis. Students will be exposed to common technical procedures such as joint aspiration and injection as well as crystal analysis by polarizing microscopy. Students will be expected to participate in the patient consultation service for both inpatient and outpatient. Throughout the experience, students will become comfortable with the overall approach to the rheumatic patient with an emphasis on improved skills in the musculoskeletal exam. Students will be able to differentiate inflammatory from degenerative diseases, interpret laboratory tests and be able to generate differential diagnoses and management plans for patients suffering from a wide variety of rheumatic diseases.
During the rural medicine clinical experience, students will be introduced to medicine in rural environments. Individuals living in rural areas typically have a lack of access to healthcare which makes the scope of practice in these areas much different. The experience will aim to allow students to understand the advantages as well as challenges of practicing in a rural community. For students who may be considering practicing in a rural community in their future careers, they will be able to identify limitations in their knowledge, build upon their skills and be exposed to the scope of practice with preceptors practicing in a rural community. Students will learn how to evaluate patients effectively, transport them in a timely manner if required and perform procedural skills. Students will also gain knowledge towards the resource requirements to run a rural medical clinic.
During the surgery clinical experience, students will be exposed to clinical problems requiring surgical intervention to have a better understanding of patient management. Surgical technique is not the main objective of this rotation. Making observations in the operating room is a fundamental part of the placement. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology of surgical disease and the management of preoperative and postoperative problems. Students are exposed to the patients with shock, bleeding, acute abdomens, fluid and electrolyte disorders, trauma, and other major syndromes encountered in general surgery. In addition to time spent on the general surgical ward and in the operating room, a students experience includes the surgical intensive care unit, the emergency department, outpatient clinics, anesthesiology, urology, and orthopedics.
The objective of the trauma clinical experience is to provide the students with the opportunity to apply the basic physiology and pathology learned to the critically ill patient in a fast-paced working environment. Some of the issues that will be addressed during the clinical experience include ventilator management, management of ARDS, electrolyte and acid-base diseases, renal replacement therapy, pain management, spinal cord injury management and head injury management. Students will participate in the Intensive care unit (ICU), multi-trauma ICU and neuro-trauma ICU. This gives students the opportunity to participate in procedures such as central lines, arterial lines, and pulmonary artery catheter insertion under the direct supervision of the attending physician.
During the trauma surgery clinical experience, students will learn about the non-operative and operative ways to treat traumatic injuries. Trauma surgeons will typically evaluate and manage the patient with the trauma injuries. Students will be assigned to trauma rounds and will take part in trauma surgeries.
An urgent care clinical experience is based upon emergency medical treatment in a clinical setting. Students will be exposed to a large variety of cases spanning from urinary tract infections to bone fractures as well as a common cough and cold treatments. During this time students should understand the pathology of each case, appropriate labs to be ordered and also being able to instantly identify when immediate emergency care is needed at which time the patient must be sent to the hospital. Students will have the opportunity to learn how to accurately draw blood, perform urine analysis as well how to conduct an x-ray. Students will also be able to observe and grasp the appropriate techniques for suturing.
During the urology clinical experience, students will be exposed to a wide variety of adult male and female urological disorders. Students will participate in day-to-day investigation and management of patients and may attend cystoscopy, open and endoscopic surgical procedures. Students will also be exposed to urodynamics, sexual dysfunction, biofeedback, and lithotripsy. Students will have the opportunity to learn about a variety of ambulatory urological conditions. Emphasis is placed on problem evaluation and the orderly process of urological investigation. Students are taught the elementary skills of catheterization, the principles of modern catheter care and routine endoscopy.
During the vascular surgery clinical experience, students will gain sufficient understanding of the evaluation and management of patients with vascular diseases and the management of these conditions. Students will make relevant findings in obtaining the history and physical examination of patients with vascular disease. Students will draw out an appropriate differential diagnosis for patients with acute and chronic vascular conditions. Students will have the opportunity to attend operative, interventional and diagnostic procedures on patients on the service. Students will learn how to appropriately perform focused exams on patients who are seen in consultation. Students will develop differential diagnoses for these patients and will formulate a plan for further evaluation and management.